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  • Environment, Forest and Climate
    Change Department
  • Govt. of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh largely consist of fertile Gangetic plains in the Northern part of the country. The major rivers flowing through the State are the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Gomti and the Ghaghra. The terai and bhabhar area in the Gangetic Plain have most of the forests while the Vindhyan forests consists mostly of scrub.

The existing flora in Uttar Pradesh can be classified into three categories-
  • 1.    Wet tropical deciduous forests.
  • 2.    Dry tropical deciduous forests.
  • 3.   Tropical thorny forests.

On the Shivalik foothills and in the terai-bhabhar area grow the sal and gigantic haldu. Along river courses the shisham grows in abundance. The Vindhyan forests have dhak, teak, mahua, salai, chironji and tendu. Shesham is mostly used for furniture while khair yields kattha, which is taken with betel leaves or pan. Semal and gutel are used as matchwood and kanju in the plywood industry. Babul provides the principal tanning material of the state. Some of the grasses such as baib and bamboo are raw material for the paper industry. Tendu leaves are used in making bidis (Indian cigarettes), and cane is used in baskets and furniture. Species of grasses have been collected from the Gangetic plain. Herbs include medicinal plants like Rauwolfia serpentina, Viala serpens, podophyllum, hexandrum and Ephecra gerardiana.
Corresponding to its variegated topography and climate, the state has a wealth of animal life. Its avifauna is among the richest in the country. Animals that can be found here include the tiger, leopard, wild boar, sloth bear, chital, sambhar, blackbuck, barking deer, hog deer, swamp deer, jackal, hyena, porcupine, jungle cat, hare, squirrel, monitor lizards, fox etc.
Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials. Among the wide variety of fishes, the most common ones are mahaseer and trout. Certain species are found in special habitats. The elephant is confined to the terai and the foothills. The chinkara and the sandgrouse prefer a dry climate, and are native to the Vindhyan forests. Rhinoceros rehabilitation program is on in the terai forest of Dudhwa. Crocodile & Gharial have also started growing in numbers because of different conservation initiatives taken by the Wildlife department of Uttar Pradesh. The most common birds include the crow, pigeon, dove, jungle fowl, black partridge, house sparrow, peafowl, blue jay, parakeet, kite, snipes, comb ducks, mynah, quail, bulbul, kingfisher and woodpecker. Besides large numbers of migratory birds visit different bird areas of the state. On 9 August 2019, 220 million trees were planted in Uttar Pradesh with the vision of increasing green area, conserving forest area and its animals. Planting was carried out in 1,430,381 places, including 60,000 villages and 83,000 sites in forest ranges.

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